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Interactive moving ball

In this project, you will move your board to move the ball displayed on the LCD. When you tilt your board to any direction, the ball moves with it.

Moving ball project

Circuit

The modules for this project are the accelerometer (I2C0) and the LCD (SPI0).

Moving ball circuit

Program overview

  1. Display a ball (circle) at the center of the LCD.
  2. Read the accelerations to know how the board moves.
  3. If it moves to the left, the ball's coordinate on the x-axis will decrease. If it's right, the x-coordinate increases.
  4. If it moves forward, the y-coordinate decreases, so the ball moves forward. And if it's downward, the y-coordinate increases.
  5. Update the ball's position on the LCD.
  6. Read the accelerations again and repeat the process.

Example code

// Import the SwiftIO library to set SPI communication and MadBoard to use pin id.
import SwiftIO
import MadBoard
// Import the driver for the screen and graphical library for display.
import ST7789
import MadDisplay
// Import the accelerometer driver to sense the movement.
import LIS3DH

// Initialize the i2c interface and use it to intialize the sensor.
let i2c = I2C(Id.I2C0)
let accelerometer = LIS3DH(i2c)

// Initialize the pins for the screen.
let spi = SPI(Id.SPI0, speed: 30_000_000)
let cs = DigitalOut(Id.D9)
let dc = DigitalOut(Id.D10)
let rst = DigitalOut(Id.D14)
let bl = DigitalOut(Id.D2)

// Initialize the screen with the pins above.
let screen = ST7789(spi: spi, cs: cs, dc: dc, rst: rst, bl: bl, rotation: .angle90)

// Create an instance using the screen to display graphics.
let display = MadDisplay(screen: screen)

// The size of the screen.
var height = 240
var width = 240

// The original coordinate of the ball. It's at the center.
var x = width / 2 - 1
var y = height / 2 - 1

// Create a ball.
let radius = 15
let ball = Circle(x: x, y: y, radius: radius, fill: Color.yellow)

// Add the ball to a group for display.
let group = Group()
group.append(ball)

// The count of pixels the ball will move each time.
var change = 5
// The threshold for the accelerations to move the ball.
let threshold: Float = 0.2

// The anchor of the ball when you move it is at the upper left corner of this tile.
// But it's at the center when creating the ball.
x -= radius
y -= radius

while true {
// Read the new accelerations to know the movement.
let accelerations = accelerometer.readXYZ()

// Check if the acceleration on x-axis exceeds the threshold.
if abs(accelerations.x) > threshold {
// Get the direction of the ball's movement horizontally.
// When you tilt your board left, the ball moves to the left, and vice versa.
if accelerations.x < 0 {
change = abs(change)
} else {
change = -abs(change)
}

// Calculate the x coordinate of the ball.
x += change
// Keep the ball within the screen.
if x < 0 {
x = 0
} else if x > width - radius * 2 - 1 {
x = width - radius * 2 - 1
}
}

// Check if the acceleration on y-axis exceeds the threshold.
if abs(accelerations.y) > threshold {
// Get the direction of the ball's movement vertically.
// When you tilt your board forward, the ball moves forward, and vice versa.
if accelerations.y < 0 {
change = -abs(change)
} else {
change = abs(change)
}

// Calculate the y coordinate of the ball.
y += change
// Keep the ball within the screen.
if y < 0 {
y = 0
} else if y > height - radius * 2 - 1 {
y = height - radius * 2 - 1
}
}

// Update the ball's position on the LCD.
ball.setXY(x: x, y: y)
display.update(group)
sleep(ms: 20)
}